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Asia

 

Paleolithic

During the Paleolithic, two major culture provinces can be recognized in Asia, each of which has yielded a distinctive sequence. The first of these includes the Middle East, Central Asia (formerly Russian Turkistan), central Siberia, and India; throughout this vast region a developmental sequence has been reported that, in all its essential respects, is related to that of Europe as well as to that of Africa in the early stages. The second of these provinces is in the south and east, and it embraces Pakistan, Myanmar (Burma), Java, Malaya, Thailand, and China. There the characteristic implement types consist of choppers and chopping tools that are often made on pebbles.

Hand-ax industries of Abbevilleo-Acheulean type are missing in southern and eastern Asia, together with the intimately associated prepared striking-platform–tortoise-core, or Levallois, technique. There the pebble-tool tradition persisted to the very end of Paleolithic times uninfluenced by contemporary innovations characteristic of the western portion of the continent.

Middle East

In this area, especially in Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria, a Lower Paleolithic development closely paralleling that of Europe is indicated by the widespread distribution of hand axes of Abbevillian and Acheulean type. Unfortunately, the majority of these finds are from open-air, unstratified sites that cannot be dated. A crude flake industry, reminiscent of the Tayacian of western Europe, has been reported from several cave sites. This is followed by a typical Upper Acheulean horizon in which there occur many developed hand axes of Micoquian type, a wide variety of flake implements, and the prepared striking-platform–tortoise-core technique. The Levalloiso-Mousterian found in the next-younger horizon is associated with a series of Neanderthaloid burials at one of the Mount Carmel Caves of Israel and at Shanidar Cave in northern Iraq. Next in the sequence comes an early Upper Paleolithic development, which is characterized by various types of blade and flake-blade tools, including points that recall the Châtelperron type. This is overlain by the Antelian (formerly Middle Aurignacian), which in turn is followed by the Atlitian and the Kebarian. These assemblages, together with the recently discovered Baradostian of northern Iraq, constitute specialized late Upper Paleolithic industries that preceded various Mesolithic developments in the Middle East.

 

Central Asia

In Central Asia, few investigations of Paleolithic sites have been conducted. Surface finds of Acheulean-type hand axes have been reported from Turkmenistan, and several Mousterian localities have been excavated in southeastern Uzbekistan. At the most important of these sites—the cave of Teshik-Tash—the burial of a Neanderthal child who was surrounded by horns of a Siberian mountain goat has been discovered. No convincing evidence has been reported showing that this region was occupied during Upper Paleolithic times.

 

South Asia

Certain Paleolithic assemblages from India and Pakistan demonstrate that during Pleistocene times the region played an intermediate role between western Asia and the Far East. In the Punjab province of Pakistan, assemblages of implements that are characteristic of both the chopper–chopping-tool and the hand-ax–Levallois-flake complexes have been found. The former, which is called the Sohanian (or Sohan), has been reported from five successive horizons, each of which yields pebble tools that are associated with flake implements. Massive and crude in the earliest phases of the Sohanian, these implements reveal a progressive refinement in the younger horizons, where the evolved pebble tools are associated with flakes produced by the prepared striking-platform–tortoise-core technique.

In part contemporary with the Early Sohanian is a series of hand axes of Abbevilleo-Acheulean affinities, which occur in profusion at numerous sites in India from the Gujarat region in the north to the Madras in the south. These sites yield hand axes, cleavers, and flake tools that are distinctly reminiscent of assemblages from southern and eastern Africa. As in the latter areas, the oldest materials are of Abbevillian type, and this is followed by the entire Acheulean cycle of development, just as in the case of the Stellenbosch of the Vaal Valley. Choppers and chopping tools made on pebbles and showing Sohanian affinities have been found throughout peninsular India in deposits of Middle Pleistocene Age. This suggests the probability that Lower Pleistocene horizons will ultimately be found in this area containing only pebble tools, as in the case of Africa.

No convincing evidence has been reported to indicate that a blade–burin complex was introduced into India before the close of Paleolithic times.

 

Far East

Pebble tools, including choppers and chopping tools, are found in the Pleistocene terrace deposits of the Irrawaddy Valley of upper Myanmar. This complex is known as the Anyathian. The Early Anyathian is characterized by single-edged core implements made on natural fragments of fossil wood and silicified tuff, and these are associated with crude flake implements. In the Late Anyathian, a direct development from the earlier stage, smaller and better made core and flake artifacts are found. No hand axes or flakes produced by the prepared striking-platform–tortoise-core technique have been found in Myanmar.

Elsewhere in the Far East, pebble tools have been reported from deposits apparently of Middle Pleistocene Age in western Thailand, for which the name Fingnoian has been proposed. In northern Malaya a large series of choppers and chopping tools made on quartzite pebbles and found in Middle Pleistocene tin-bearing gravels have been referred to collectively as the Tampanian, since they come from a place called Kota Tampan in Perak. Still another late Middle Pleistocene assemblage, called the Patjitanian, is known from a very prolific site in south-central Java. In both the Tampanian and Patjitanian the main types of implements consist of single-edged choppers and chopping tools that occur in association with primitive flakes with unprepared, high-angle striking platforms. Also in both assemblages is an interesting series of pointed, bifacial implements that have been described as crude hand axes. Since these tools are very rare in each instance and are absent in Myanmar, it is probable that they were developed in southeastern Asia independently of influences from the West. Several sites of Upper Pleistocene age in central Java have produced artifacts made on small to medium-sized flakes and flake blades. Antler and bone implements belong to this complex, known as the Ngandongian, which has also been reported from the Celebes and from the Philippines.

One of the oldest Lower Paleolithic occupation sites ever discovered is near the village of Chou-k'ou-tien, about 48 kilometres (30 miles) southwest of Peking in northern China. Associated with the remains of Peking man ( Homo erectus pekinensis, formerly Sinanthropus pekinensis), pebble tools, together with quartz-flake implements, occur in quantity. This assemblage, which is known as the Choukoutienian, is of Middle Pleistocene age; it forms an integral part of the chopper-chopping tool tradition of the Far East.

Also in northern China several Upper Paleolithic sites are known in the provinces of Shansi, Shensi, and northern Kansu, in the region encompassed by the great bend of the Yellow River (Huang Ho). Collectively known as the Ordosian, these materials are of Upper Pleistocene age. Typical of the Ordosian are blade implements of various types, points and scrapers of Mousterian-like appearance, and pebble tools of Choukoutienian tradition. Originally classified as Moustero-Aurignacian, it later became apparent that this development had much in common with that of the Yenisey–Baikal region to the north in central Siberia.

 

Siberia

The archaeological materials from the loess sites of Siberia between the Yenisey Valley and the Lake Baikal area is an interesting mixture of (1) blade tools, together with antler, bone, and ivory artifacts of classic Upper Paleolithic type; (2) points and scrapers made on flakes of Mousterian aspect; and (3) pebble tools representing a survival of the ancient chopper–chopping tool tradition of eastern Asia. Remains of semi-subterranean dwellings with centrally located hearths occur at certain of these stations, together with female statuettes in bone. One of the most striking features of this Siberian Upper Paleolithic is the fact of its comparatively late survival: in terms of the European sequence, it seems to have persisted as late as Early Mesolithic times. Indeed, in several instances it actually occurs in the uppermost layer of loess immediately below a horizon of humus containing Neolithic campsites. The problems of the Siberian Upper Paleolithic are of obvious importance to students of New World archaeology, since they have an intimate and direct bearing on the question of the peopling of the Americas.

Hallam L. Movius, Jr.

 

 

Mesolithic–Neolithic: the rise of village-farming communities

Middle East

There is little question that a level of an effective food-producing, village-farming-community way of life had been achieved in certain portions of southwestern Asia by at least 7000 BC. Furthermore, increasing evidence indicated that the effective village-farming level was preceded by one of cultivation and animal domestication and that this incipient level was at least under way by about 9000 BC.

Incipient cultivation and domestication

The level of incipient cultivation and domestication was essentially restricted to the piedmont and intermontane valley zone that flanks the Zagros–Taurus–Lebanon chain of highlands about the great basin of the upper Tigris–Euphrates and Karkheh–KaIun rivers and their tributaries. There are even hints that the zone extended to parts of the Iranian and Anatolian plateaus and that it may possibly have fingered northwest toward European Thrace. The significant point is that the zone appears to have formed a natural habitat for the cluster of plants and animals that were potentially domesticable. Most of these subsequent domesticates—wheat, barley, sheep, goats, cattle, and pigs, plus a possible wolf dog—still exist in their wild state in those parts of the zone that have been examined by prehistoric archaeologists and natural scientists.

The level of incipient cultivation and domestication is best manifested by the archaeological materials of the Natufian group in the Palestine-Syro-Lebanese littoral and parts of its hinterland, and by the Karim Shahir group in Iraqi and Iranian Kurdistan. The possibility of a continuation of the level into the northern Syrian and southern Turkish portions of the natural-habitat zone has been essentially untested by modern field research. Both of the available complexes of materials, the Natufian and the Karim Shahirian, appear to have been established by about 9000 BC.

The Natufian and Karim Shahirian

In both, there are clear indications of open settlements that were of modest size, and there are some traces of round huts, some of which were built on stone foundations, although caves are also known to have still been inhabited. Both groups yield traces of normal developments of flint industries that are based essentially upon local Upper Paleolithic antecedents, and both must have been influenced in their food getting by the already intensified food-collecting practices of their immediate predecessors. It is freely admitted that the postulation of this incipient level rests considerably on a judgment that is based on the materials of the succeeding level of effective village-farming communities. Nevertheless, it has been demonstrated that sheep were already being used at the incipient level, and there are such hints as flint sickles, ground-stone mullers, mortars and pestles, and probable hoe blades to suggest that food plants were also receiving marked attention. Claims for the domesticated dog in the Natufian are not universally accepted, however.

It has been rightly stressed that the materials of this level will be exceedingly difficult to interpret, since the earliest plant and animal domesticates will show little morphological difference from their wild contemporaries and since the procedures and artifacts of the new food-getting and food-preparation techniques will have taken considerable time to develop.

The effective village-farming community

The next level, that of the effective village-farming community, yields, even in its earliest available phase (e.g., at Jarmo, in Iraqi Kurdistan, c. 7000 BC), materials that leave little doubt about the presence of food production. In the Jarmo phase, wheat, barley, a pea, goats, sheep, and—before the phase is completed—pigs and probably dogs all appear. The Jarmo settlement suggests a permanent village of about 20 rectangular several-roomed huts, which probably had a population of at least 150 people. Several other variants of the Jarmo phase have been excavated or at least located in Kurdistan. One of these, Sarab, near Kermanshah in Iran, suggests a seasonal encampment of herdsmen. Sarab yields pottery throughout its shallow deposit; at Jarmo itself, similar pottery appeared only in the upper third of a much thicker deposit.

“Preceramic” village sites have been recovered in the Dead Sea Valley, along the Syro-Palestinian littoral, on Cyprus, in the southwestern Turkish highlands, and even in Thessalian Greece. Controversy exists regarding the very spectacular architectural remains of the Dead Sea Valley site of Tall as-Sultan (reputedly also the site of the later Jericho), with disagreements about its “town” or even “urban” nature in view of the normal small-object assemblage there, the radiocarbon determinations now available for it, and the relative lack of firm evidence for cultivation. These disagreements will certainly be resolved as more sites in the time range of about 9000 to 6000 BC are excavated in the Syro-Palestinian littoral and in parts of its hinterland.

Fully established village sequences in the Middle East

By 6000 BC or not long thereafter, a variety of more or less complete regional cultural sequences developed in the Middle East. In Iran, two sequences appeared. That beginning at the site of Sialk developed most characteristically in the northern and northeastern parts of the country and evidently extended into what is now Turkmenistan and northern Baluchistan and possibly beyond to the Indus. A somewhat different tradition developed in southwestern and southern Iran, early traces of which may be seen at Ja'farabad in Susiana (Elam) and at Bakun B near Persepolis. This tradition exhibited a closer proximity to the earlier sites in Iraq; its eastern extension may also be traced as far as Baluchistan, if not beyond into the Indus Valley.

The earliest full-bodied assemblage in northern Iraq, following that of Jarmo, is the Hassunan of the Mosul–Kirkuk piedmont. Next—either as elements in the developed Hassunan phases or alone at the mid-Euphrates site of Baghouz or at the mid-Tigris site of Samarra—comes the Samarran phase. Then, with further overlap, comes the Halafian phase of the upper (Syro-Turkish-Iraqi) piedmont. The overlapping of these three assemblages is indicated by the availability of a radiocarbon determination for an early Halafian level, which is as early as either of the two determinations of the Hassunan—about 5750 BC. The beginning of the food-producing sequence in classic southern Mesopotamia comes after this time and is, perhaps, partly an amalgam of (1) a southward extension of Hassuna–Samarra–Halaf traits, (2) the westward extension of early Susiana traits from southwestern Iran, and (3) the probable presence of indigenous riverine-oriented food collectors.

Another local tradition, at least contemporary with that of Hasuna (and perhaps earlier than that of Sialk), appears to have its focus in the Syro-Cilician corner of the eastern Mediterranean; its preceramic antecedents may be seen in the basal levels of coastal Ras Shamra. Later, this Syro-Cilician tradition appears to have been affected by the Halafian and later inland developments. To the north of Syro-Cilicia the early materials of Hacilar and of Catal Hüyük must be given place, including the possibility of their implications for the early developments in the Aegean. To the south, the Syro-Cilician tradition merged gradually into a somewhat related coastal Palestinian tradition. But in the more arid reaches of inland Palestine, a somewhat different tradition developed that appears to have culminated in the sites of semi-nomadic traders, such as that at Beersheba.

Food production appears to have reached Egypt (and northern Africa generally) relatively late, perhaps not much before 4500 BC. Such northern Egyptian occurrences as Merimde (on the western flank of the Nile Delta) and the Fayum (Fayyum) A pit sites might argue for an expansion directly (by boats?) from the Asian coast. But some authorities favour the idea of a way into middle Egypt via the Red Sea and the Wadi Rawd 'Aid to account for the available developments there.

General cultural level of the early villages

This very compressed sketch is meant only to suggest the variety of regional variations and adjustments within the general development of the effective village-farming level in the Middle East, from about 6000 to 4500 BC. Wheat and barley were the staple crops; cattle join sheep, goats, and pigs as major food animals, at least by the Halafian phase. Villages—except the Tall as-Sultan fortified establishment—were small; an informed guess would put their limit of population at about 500 people. Again, except for some dubious interpretations of certain rather modest buildings as “shrines,” the architecture appears to be entirely domestic in nature. Aesthetic expression also took the form of an almost bewildering variety of regionalized and successive painted-pottery styles. The modeling of clay figurines—already well attested in the phase of Jarmo and its contemporaries—continues, with both animals and stylized human females being rendered. The latter, especially, may be suspected as having represented some magico-religious aspect of concern with fertility, upon which the livelihood of the communities depended. Flint tools were gradually replaced by copper and, eventually, by bronze implements, and the early trade routes in obsidian (a volcanic glass of restricted occurrence) were doubtless taken over by the metallurgists. Certain artifacts indicate the presence of weaving; in addition to their local utility, woven fabrics may also have served as media of exchange. It would be difficult to maintain that there was a strict subdivision of labour on a full-time scale (except perhaps on a basis of sex or age), but such a trend must have been setting in.

It should be emphasized that the complexity of this picture cannot readily be conceived apart from a system of effective food production. It may also be noted that an older trend was not being reversed. The intensified food collecting at the close of the Pleistocene was apparently accompanied by increasing regional specialization and a tendency toward full utilization of a rather restricted environmental niche. Now—with the establishment and spread of the effective village-farming community, its expansion beyond the confines of the natural-habitat zone, and the beginnings of trade—the horizon began to widen again. The oikoumene, or known world of these first effective village farmers, became an ever-expanding one. Hence, just as it is probably not very fruitful to ask exactly where any particular element was “invented” or first discovered within the level of incipient cultivation and domestication in the natural-habitat zone, it is probably most useful to view the development of the way of life of the effective village-farming community as a general regional phenomenon of cultural interrelationships and stimulations. It might be further suggested that this general development took place over a broad area that had certain localized environmental variables and natural resources. These environmental conditions, however, had been there, just as the natural-habitat zone itself had been, long before incipient and effective food production came into being. The latter were human, cultural achievements; favourable environment, though it enabled them to come into being, did not cause them.

The threshold of town and city life in the Middle East

The end of prehistory and the threshold of urban civilization are first seen in classic southern Mesopotamia about 4500 BC. The materials of the Ubaidian assemblage make their appearance after a still rather poorly delineated phase in the basal levels of the mound of Eridu. Whatever elements combined in the earliest amalgam (northern Iraqian, Susianan, or indigenous), the resultant traits of the Ubaidian tradition are revealed in their greatest clarity, consistency, and variety in southern Mesopotamia by 4000 BC.

There are mound accumulations and at least one large cemetery, which suggest a scale of communities well beyond that of the simple village. Buildings sufficiently large, formal in design and size, and monumental in concept and decoration to be judged as temples were present. Great quantities of painted pottery of high quality appear in the excavations. This pottery, by its very uniformity and the somewhat cursive nature of its decoration, may already have been the product of specialized craftsmen. No unquestionable instances of metal tools were available by the early 1960s from Ubaidian contexts in southern Mesopotamia (although metal was available by that time in the north), but quantities of very highly fired clay tools (axes, adzes, sickles) had been found. These were useful for cutting the pithy woods, reeds, and grain of the southern alluvial environment or for dressing sun-baked bricks. The female clay figurines continued, but in a unique and highly characteristic stylization.

General cultural level of the Ubaidian Phase

A Ubaidian town supplied itself from fields of wheat and barley and its animal herds. The agricultural regime in the hot, dry alluvium of southern Mesopotamia depends, however, upon the utilization of the braided lower channels of the Tigris and especially of the Euphrates. Though elaborate irrigation works did not exist, the management of even quite informal ditches, with necessary shifts when the natural channels of the rivers shifted, added a new dimension to the sociopolitical necessities of Ubaidian culture. This system of irrigation may have been one of the factors that contributed to the expansion of society in late prehistoric Mesopotamia. Given the proper management and water, the yield of the rich alluvial soil was magnificent (until salinity became a problem several centuries later). There were also important dietary additions, such as dates from the groves of date palms and fish from the river channels and ditches.

With southern Mesopotamia as its focus, the Ubaidian tradition “exported” some of its elements at least as far as the Mediterranean coast and throughout the great upper drainage basin of the Tigris–Euphrates and Karkheh–KaIun rivers. These exported traits doubtless reflect the growth of another oikoumene, and one much more explicitly southern Mesopotamian in character. In southern Mesopotamia itself, the Ubaidian phase was followed (after a “Warkan” interval) by the proto-Literate period, in which the usual criteria of civilization are manifest.

 

South and East Asia

It is known that village-farming communities existed in the Indus Valley as early as 3000 BC, if not earlier. The original complexion of their assemblages resembled those of Iran (and perhaps those of the Ubaidian imprint on southwestern Iran), but this complexion gradually changed to something characteristic of the Indus Valley itself and evidently culminated in the Harappan urban civilization. Some degree of contact between the cities of the Indus and of Mesopotamia certainly continued to exist, however. It is becoming evident that the Harappan complex was not restricted to the Indus Valley alluvium but extended into the adjacent semitropical portions of India as well.

Knowledge of the developmental sequence in China is obviously incomplete. Except for a few snatches of typologically more simple materials, the first evidence of food production in China appears to pertain to a well-advanced phase of the effective village-farming-community level. This is the Yangshao complex, focussed in the basin about the confluence of the Yellow River (Huang Ho), the Fen Ho, and the Kuei Shui. Characterized by a handsome painted-pottery style, the Yangshao catalog also includes cultivated millet, rice, kaoliang, and possibly soybeans, as well as domesticated pig, cattle, sheep, dog, chicken, and possibly the horse and silkworm. The village houses were built of tamped earth; there was a flourish of “ceremonial” pottery vessels and of elaborately worked objects in jade, as well as flint, bone, and ground-stone objects of daily use. The Yangshao phase is followed by that called Lungshan, after which comes the Yin, or Shang, early dynastic complex of about 1500 BC. The date for the beginning of the Yangshao is unknown; 3500 BC is probably much too early.

Even less is known of southern China and southeastern Asia; the former seems to have been affected by the expansion of the makers of the Lungshan black pottery and perhaps was also stimulated from the south. The rather amorphous Hoabinhian and Bacsonian sequence in Indochina, with ground-stone axes and adzes, appears to be quite late—perhaps of the 1st millennium BC. In Japan, on the other hand, the first appearance of pottery of early Jomon type (evidently all of the Jomon development lies before effective cultivation had begun) has several radiocarbon determinations at about 7000 BC, but some authorities suspect contamination of the samples. Positive cultivation (wet rice) appears in Japan about 300 BC, in the Yayoi phase.

Robert J. Braidwood

Ed.

 

Central Asia and Siberia

The Mesolithic–Neolithic era and the settlement of northern Siberia started in the 7th to 6th millennia BC—the period of climatic optimum in Postglacial times, when forest conditions were introduced. Stratified sites in the Lake Baikal area show a long and gradual transition from the Paleolithic to the Neolithic stage. The Postglacial culture in Siberia was not a true “Neolithic” food-producing, but a “Mesolithic,” or “sub-Neolithic,” hunter-and-fisher, culture (except in southern Siberia around the Aral Sea) with a microlithic flint industry in western and southern Siberia and with polished-stone tools, pointed- or round-based pottery, and bow and arrow, starting in about the 4th millennium BC in almost all parts of Siberia.

Culturally and racially, the territories of this vast area are divisible into two blocks: (1) the southwestern, covering the area from the Caspian Sea to the upper Yenisey, extending over the zones of semidesert, steppe, and forest steppe, and (2) the eastern and northern, covering mountainous regions from Lake Baikal to the Pacific Ocean and the taiga (coniferous forest) and tundra belts of northern Siberia. The first is represented by peoples of European descent, the second by peoples of Asian descent. These two groups were in conflict until the latter overcame the former in several waves.

European cultures

The earliest Neolithic culture in the steppes and in the oases may reach the 4th millennium or earlier, but its beginnings are not as yet satisfactorily investigated. The small flint industry continued from the earlier Mesolithic times. In the 3rd millennium BC, copper, painted ware, and other elements from the south entered the area. Sheep, cattle, and horses were the chief domesticated animals. Copper knives and stone sledges for mining appeared. Pottery was mostly round-bottomed, decorated with geometric stamped or scratched patterns in rows. Typical burial of the dead was in a contracted position under an earth mound. Excavations in Khwarezm (Khorezm, Khiva) revealed large communal houses of oval form. In the region of the Aral Sea (Khwarezm) this culture was given the name Kelteminar, while in Altai and the region of Bisk, Krasnodar, and Minusinsk, it was known as Afanasievo, although related cultural features are found between southern Russia and the upper Yenisey, the area presumed to be Indo-European homeland. The Afanasievo was replaced by the Okunev group of stock breeders, famous for stone stelae incised with mythical figures, elsewhere in southern Siberia.

Continuous cultural development is seen in the 2nd millennium BC. This culture, named Andronovo, is relatively uniform in this wide area, in spite of some local variations. Agriculture now played an important role. People lived in earth huts and reared cattle, sheep, and horses. Bowl- and flowerpot-shaped vessels were flat-bottomed, well smoothed, decorated with geometric patterns, triangles, rhombs, and meanders, pointing to relationship with the painted pottery of the southern regions. Burial in contracted position persisted. The typical elements of a religion of food producers, the fire and sun cult, as well as bread offering, are evidenced. Wooden constructions in rich graves may have designated social differentiation. The Andronovo complex is intimately related to the Timber-Grave (Russian Srubna) group in southern Russia: both represent branches of the Indo-Iranian cultural block.

In the second half of the 2nd millennium BC in the region of Minusinsk, a Sinid group broke in that brought with it a bronze inventory of Ordos (northern China) type. Cemeteries of single graves covering the dead in extended position in stone cists, equipped with round-bottomed pots, appeared. New people mixed with the local Andronovo population. Through this immigration the so-called Karasuk culture originated and spread its influences farther to western Siberia and Russian Turkistan. Trade relations extended to central Russia. Exchange with the centres of the Far Eastern metallurgy introduced a new character of material culture (daggers and knives terminating in animal sculptures, series of ornaments) and stimulated the flourishing of metal industry in a wide area. The regions west of Minusinsk—Altai, Kazakhstan, and Kirghizia—show variations of Karasuk culture with strong local elements with which the persistence of the ancient racial type corresponds. Chronology of this period is based on comparisons with northern Chinese bronzes.

The Karasuk period persisted down to c. 700 BC. From c. 700 to c. 200 BC, culture developed along similar lines. Vital trade contact is traced from northern China and the Baikal region to the Black Sea and the Urals, influencing the uniformity of the culture. A mounted-warrior element occurred, although the agricultural and cattle-breeding elements persisted. In the high Altai, Tien Shan, and Pamirs appeared graves of nomadic warriors with co-burial of horses. Regarding the local facies, or separate political confederations, cultures of this period are called Tagar in the region of Minusinsk, Maiemiric in Altai, Sauromatian (Sarmatian) in western Kazakhstan, Sakian in Tien Shan and Pamirs, and Massagetian in Khwarezm.

The art of the steppe zone from southern and eastern Russia to China developed into specific animal style. The decorative talent is illustrated in the great ingenuity that the artist displayed in filling up with animal figures a shape determined by practical ends. The elk, ram, bird, and cat-animal portrayals of the middle of the 1st millennium BC exhibit a conjunction of the highest verisimilitude with rigorous stylization; later the organic form of the animal was ruled by extreme stylization. The elements of naturalism link this style with the naturalistic animal style of the northern Eurasian forest belt. New motifs in the steppe and forest-steppe belt—portrayal of groups of animals, antithetic and intertwined groups of bodies, curled up animals, beasts, and birds of prey—originated in a borrowing of ideas from the Middle East and China.

Pre-Christian culture, although influenced by the Persian Empire, progressed gradually until the new flow from the east started. The territory between the lower Volga and Altai represents a unit with a common destiny. Chinese and Western sources report that the Sarmatian–Sakian time was followed by the supremacy of the Huns, who dominated the western steppes as far as the Urals and the Volga. Archaeological investigations show that the east–west movement started at a time when the Hun confederation had not yet been consolidated. In eastern Kazakhstan appeared an eastern group of Stone Tombs people not later than the 5th century BC. The main east–west stream ran presumably from Manchuria–upper Lena, along the northern border of the Gobi, into the Lake Balqash territory, and from there on, avoiding powerful cities in Khwarezm, into the steppes north of the Caspian. For centuries up to the consolidation of the Turkish khanate in the 6th century AD, Asian components were mingling with the local European, which have never been wiped out. The known pre-Turkic tribes—Massagetians, Sakians, Usuns, Khakas—all show more or less European physical traits.

The cultural pattern from Altai to Transbaikalia in the last centuries BC and first centuries AD is largely traced to China of the Han period. Social differentiation is evidenced by princely burials, extraordinarily well preserved in five large burial mounds of Pazyryk and Shibe in the high Altai. Complete burial places were frozen, and even perishable substances were preserved, including human bodies and horses with harness and saddles, textiles, felt and leather objects, clothing, fur coats, false beards, besides jewelry, mirrors, hair plaits, etc. All materials were finished with virtuosity. The art combined animal, plant, geometric, and human designs. Polychromy played an important part. Mummification, tattooing, scalping, and the use of amulets are evidenced.

Meanwhile, in the region of the Aral Sea, the apogee of the Khwarezm civilization was reached in the epoch of the empire of the Kushans. During the 1st and 2nd centuries AD the irrigation system attained its greatest development. Numerous cities were built along the banks of the canals.

Asian cultures

The Arctic and sub-Arctic zones exhibit a continuous culture belt in a sub-Neolithic stage from Boreal times through several millennia. Making of pottery and polishing of stones, but neither farming nor domestication of animals, except the dog, were known. People lived in small, semi-nomadic communities, in semi-subterranean houses. The Arctic seashores demonstrate sea-hunter cultures. In the north this stage of life has lasted down to the present time. The region of the Amur River in eastern Siberia shows a long-lasting Neolithic, of which the oldest forms resemble certain finds of northern Japan (Proto-Ainu) and China. Cultural continuity is traced from the Neolithic through the stages in which copper smelting and iron were known. In the farthest northeast, archaeological and other data suggest that the Kamchadal, Koryak, and Chukchi entered the area from the west less than 2,000 years ago and found the coastal region occupied by a population related to the Eskimo.

The Ural region was linked with the northern Russian and western Siberian culture on one hand and with the Aral Sea region on the other. Throughout the Neolithic and Bronze Age times, two cultural branches were evident: the middle Ural (or Shigir) and that of the Ob River basin. During the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC the culture of the middle Ural region is famous for its elk and water-bird sculptures portrayed in wood, found in the peat bogs of Gorbunovo and Shigir, and that of the upper Ob region for its cemeteries in the area of Tomsk, abundant art objects, including bear figurines, and rock carvings. Cultural relationships between the northern Baltic and northwestern Siberia, forming a continuum up to the early historic period, furnish this area with the characteristics of the homelands of the Finno-Ugric-speaking peoples.

The best-explored regions are the shores of Lake Baikal, the Angara Valley, the upper Lena, and the lower Selenga. The earliest Neolithic culture shows Siberian Upper Paleolithic traits; the flint tradition of small implements persisted alongside a wood-working and quartzite industry, which developed as a result of adaptation to a taiga environment. Chronological phases are based chiefly on the Angara grave materials by means of stratigraphy and comparisons. The following successive cultures are discerned: (1) Isakovo, showing the earliest appearance of pottery, alongside flint and bone tools (arrowheads, knives, points, half-ground adzes). Pointed-based pots in Isakovo probably were copies of similarly shaped baskets. Art monuments are not numerous here. The period may reach back to c. 4000 BC. (2) Serovo, characterized by thinner pottery, decorated by dentate stamping, boss, pit, and net impressions and by stone inventory of more regular forms; reinforced bows with bone backing and fish effigies of stone appear. A marked increase of population is indicated by settlements covering hundreds of square metres, including storage pits for fish. In cemeteries, women's graves were richly equipped, which may indicate woman's equal rights in Serovo community. Serovo people migrated to the steppe and deserts of Central Asia and Inner Mongolia. The period belongs to the 3rd millennium BC. (3) Kitoi, placed before the middle of the 2nd millennium BC, shows a variety of more developed forms of equipment; the great number of fishhooks found in the graves indicates that subsistence was now based primarily on fishing instead of hunting; sculptures of human faces in stone, stone rings, and nephrite and copper objects appear; close parallels in stone and bone industry, as well as in art style, are found from northern Scandinavia and northern Russia to China. (4) Glazkovo, extending through the middle of the 2nd millennium BC to c. 1300 BC, continues a similar mode of life; novelties include the appearance of burial mounds and burials in stone cists, copper knives and arm rings, nephrite rings and disks.

The first bronze inventory in the region of Lake Baikal is related to the bronzes of the Shang period in northern China and the earliest Ordos bronzes. Life was then of semi-settled character, and cattle breeding was known. Continuity of culture in the Bronze Age stage is traced up to c. 300 BC. The period between c. 700 and 300 BC in Transbaikalia, called Stone Tombs I, exhibits a transition to nomadism and mounted-warrior conditions. Cultural elements held in common with the Scythian steppe zone appear as far in the northeast as the Lena River. South–north and north–south movements are attested in the last centuries BC. The south–north movement is assumed as Sakha (Yakut) migration from the Baikal to the upper Lena region, the north–south movement from Cisbaikalia to Transbaikalia as migration of the taiga group, related to the Tungus of the present day.

Marija Gimbutas

 

 

 

Africa

 

Paleolithic

The Paleolithic of Africa is characterized by a variety of stone-tool assemblages, some of which represent purely local developments while others are practically identical with materials from corresponding horizons in Europe. Geological investigations of the Late Cenozoic deposits of this continent indicate that, as the result of fluctuations in rainfall, the Pleistocene Epoch throughout most of Africa can be subdivided on the basis of a succession of pluvial and interpluvial stages. The pluvials, known as Kageran, Kamasian, Kanjeran, and Gamblian, are believed to represent the tropical and subtropical equivalents of the four major glacial stages of the Northern Hemisphere, but this has not yet been proved. The archaeological succession is well established in certain areas, although not in the continent as a whole.

North Africa

In this area, very crudely worked pebble tools have been reported from one site in Algeria in direct association with a Lower Pleistocene (Villafranchian) mammalian assemblage. Throughout Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, and the Sahara region, Lower Paleolithic hand axes of both Abbevillian and Acheulean type, together with flake tools, have been found in great numbers. The geological evidence shows that the Sahara region was far less arid during Pleistocene times than it is at present. The Middle Paleolithic of both Levalloisian and Mousterian facies is very widespread in North Africa, and it apparently persisted as late as the second maximum of the Würm glaciation in terms of the European sequence. A specialized Middle Paleolithic development, known as the Aterian, occurred there; it is characterized by tanged points made on flakes and flake blades. This was succeeded by two distinctive blade-tool complexes—the Capsian and Oranian—which are more or less contemporary. Their main development took place during the time span of the European Mesolithic. The Capsian sites are all inland, whereas the Oranian has a coastal distribution. Both are microlithic tool complexes that persisted after the introduction of Neolithic traits into the area.

 

Egypt

The Pleistocene terrace gravels of the Nile Valley in Egypt have produced a wealth of Paleolithic materials. The 30-metre terrace contains typical Abbevillian and early Acheulean hand axes, including a special form with a triangular section known as the Chalossian type. These are associated with primitive flake implements. In the 15-metre terrace, developed Acheulean has been recorded, while the nine-metre terrace yields large flakes and cores of Levalloisian type. In the low terrace, which occurs at a height of three metres above river level, developed Levalloisian (originally called Mousterian) has been reported. Overlying the low terrace, a local development known as the Sebilian is found. It contains very highly evolved flake implements of Levallois type and, in its later phases, a definite microlithic industry. Of approximately the same age as the Sebilian are several Epi-Levalloisian sites in the Lower Nile drainage, including the Fayyum Depression and the al-Kharijah (Kharga) Oasis. In the latter area, where the specialized Levalloisian development is called the Khargan, an Egyptian version of the Aterian has been discovered.

 

East Africa

In Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda, very simple types of pebble tools, roughly chipped to an edge on one side only, occur in deposits of Lower Pleistocene age. This development, known as the Kafuan, apparently evolved into an industry characterized by implements made on pebbles chipped to an edge on both sides, called the Oldowan. Overlying the latter are beds containing true Lower Paleolithic hand axes of Abbevillian and Acheulean type, together with flake tools. Associated with the Middle and Late Acheulean are cleavers made on flakes, as well as evidence of the use of the prepared striking-platform–tortoise-core (Levallois) technique in the production of flakes. In the next-younger horizon, two distinct toolmaking traditions are found: the Kenya Stillbay, a Levalloisian derivative characterized by small- to medium-sized, bifacially flaked points or minute hand axes; and the Kenya Fauresmith, basically of Acheulean inspiration and very similar to the true Fauresmith of southern Africa. Carefully shaped round stone balls, believed to have been used as bola weights in hunting, constitute part of the Fauresmith assemblage. In the post-Gamblian dry phase, microlithic tools appear for the first time in an assemblage known as the Magosian. This was followed by the introduction into the area of a true blade technique, called the Kenya Capsian, together with the art of pottery making. More or less contemporary with the localities where the earliest pottery is found in East Africa, a series of sites has been discovered yielding typical microlithic assemblages and referable to the Kenya Wilton, also found in South Africa, Zimbabwe, and Zambia.

 

Southern Africa

The sequence in southern Africa is well established on the basis of the terrace stratigraphy of the Vaal Valley. Just as in North and East Africa, the succession begins in the basal Pleistocene with the occurrence of simple pebble tools of Kafuan type. These develop into what is called the pre-Stellenbosch, which is found in the oldest gravels of the Vaal and which includes artifacts made on pebbles that recall both the Kafuan and the Oldowan. The true Stellenbosch complex occurs in the next-younger series of deposits; it is simply a southern African version of the Abbevillian and Acheulean of other parts of Africa and Europe. Typical are hand axes, cleavers, flakes struck from Victoria West cores, and (in its later phases) various sorts of flakes produced by the prepared striking-platform–tortoise-core technique. The Stellenbosch was followed by the Fauresmith, which is characterized by evolved hand axes and Levallois-type flakes. The Stellenbosch and Fauresmith together constitute what is called the South African Older Stone Age, a period roughly corresponding to the Lower and Middle Paleolithic stages of Europe. On the other hand, the South African Middle Stone Age belongs to the later part of the Upper Pleistocene. It is characterized by a series of more or less contemporary flake-tool assemblages, each of which displays local features. These are known as Mossel Bay, Pietersburg, Howieson's Poort, Bambata Cave, Stillbay, etc.; Stillbay, which occurs in Kenya and Uganda, is the only one of these found outside southern Africa. The characteristic tools are made on flakes produced by a developed Levalloisian technique, including slender unifacial and bifacial lances or spear points for stabbing or throwing. In the final stages of the Middle Stone Age, known as the South African Magosian, microlithic elements appear, just as in the case of East Africa. The Later Stone Age cultures of this region—the Smithfield and the Wilton—developed during post-Pleistocene times. These are closely related and, in their later stages, reveal varying degrees of influence as the result of contact with the culture introduced by the Bantu-speaking peoples. Both were extant at the time the first Europeans arrived in southern Africa, and there is little doubt that the Wilton, which is a typical microlithic assemblage, is to be associated with the modern San (Bushman). There are many paintings in the rock shelters and engravings on stones in the open-air sites of southern Africa, the oldest of which belong to the Later Stone Age. The naturalistic style of art revealed at these sites persisted until well into historic times.

 

Central Africa

The Lower Paleolithic sequence of Central, or Equatorial, Africa is essentially a repetition of what has already been outlined for East and southern Africa. At the beginning of Middle Stone Age times, however, a special development took place known as the Sangoan (formerly Tumbian). This is characterized by picks and adzes made on bifacially flaked cores, the tranchet type of ax, hand axes of developed Acheulean form, massive side scrapers, and many elongated, bifacially flaked points that probably served as lances or spearheads. The Sangoan seems to represent a response to the environmental conditions of this tropical rain-forest region. Its main development took place during Upper Pleistocene times, but it persisted after the introduction of Neolithic traits into the area.

Hallam L. Movius, Jr.

 

 

Mesolithic–Neolithic

The Paleolithic was everywhere followed by the Mesolithic, a period when man continued to use stone tools, mostly microlithic, and, while still in the hunting-and-gathering stage, depended less for his food supply on large mammals than on fish and mollusks. In Africa the evidence for the Mesolithic is still scanty. In the Lower Nile Valley, sites have been examined only at Hulwan (Helwan) and Kawm Umbu (Kom Ombo). At the latitude of Khartoum, for a considerable distance to each side of the Nile, have been found sites of a Mesolithic culture in which large, well-fired, unburnished pots decorated with designs impressed with a fish spine to make them resemble baskets were made and barbed bone harpoons were used for fishing. Arrows were mostly armed with stone lunates, and in general the microlithic industry shows relations with the Capsian (of northwestern Africa) and the Wilton (of east central Africa). The fauna indicates a climate much wetter than the present. The upper Kenya Capsian, with traces of similar pottery found at Gamble's Cave, probably represents the Mesolithic of Kenya. Its pottery also copies basketwork. And while it is impossible to say where pottery was invented, the discovery of a prepottery Neolithic in Asia, with the existence of modern mud-lined baskets among the Nilotes, the accidental burning of which could have led to the invention of pottery, suggests that pottery was possibly an African discovery.

The Neolithic inventions that led to the rise of man above the conditions of the Old Stone Age were made gradually in different places and probably over a long period. Some, such as the domestication of animals, took place more than once. In a famine, a wild animal will sell itself into slavery to man for the food that will preserve its life. Thus, cattle and goats, while certainly domesticated in Asia, may have been independently domesticated in Africa, too. African jackals may have provided one breed of domestic dog, while the donkey and the cat are African. The polishing of stone implements was probably a by-product of the grinding of red ochre, in wide demand for its magic properties since the Paleolithic and extensively used in Africa in the Mesolithic and later. One result of the grinding of ochre was to polish the grindstone, and another, when the upper grindstone was used at an angle, was to develop a sharp edge that, produced accidentally, may have led to the idea of grinding the cutting edge of celts or other tools. Repeated pecking of the flat surfaces of the grindstones that became too smooth to grind ochre efficiently led to perforation of the stone and thus to the development of the disk macehead of the Nile Valley. Archaeology must establish where and when celts were first ground; but the partly polished celts of the Fayum and Khartoum are probably the earliest forms of that tool known. The cultivation of wheat, barley, and flax probably were Asiatic developments that first entered Africa through the Nile Delta. The cultivation of one form of wheat may have originated in Ethiopia, however.

In Egypt, civilization first reached its full development c. 3000 BC, but though it passed through Copper and Bronze ages and introduced copper tools to The Sudan, there is no evidence of either of these ages in the rest of Africa, where a transition from the Stone Age, generally still Mesolithic in type, directly to the Iron Age took place gradually during the last two millennia and in a few places did not take place until the middle of the 20th century. In some localities, an intermediate state, when Neolithic forms were used, occurred ( e.g., Zaire and Ghana), but elsewhere ( e.g., Kenya) polished-stone celts, or axes, seem so rare that they may have been comparatively late imports from the north.

Ed.

 

 

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