Samuel Morse (1791-1872) was the developer of Morse Code--a system that assigned a set of dots and dashes to each letter of the English alphabet and allowed for the simple transmission of complex messages across telegraph lines. Morse also contributed to the invention of the single-wire telegraph, and was instrumental in persuading the U.S. Congress to fund the construction of telegraph lines--the first of which was completed in 1844, and stretched from Washington D.C. to Baltimore. By 1861, the Western Union Telegraphy Company had laid the first transcontinental telegraph line, allowing Americans to communicate coast-to-coast with unprecedented speed.
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The first message sent by telegraph was, "What hath God wrought!"
Samuel Morse (1791-1872) was an American painter and inventor who, independent of similar efforts in Europe, developed an electric telegraph (1832–35). In 1838 he developed the Morse Code.
Morse was the son of Jedidiah Morse, the distinguished geographer and Congregational clergyman. From Phillips Academy in Andover, where he had been an unsteady and eccentric student, his parents sent him to Yale College. Although an indifferent scholar, his interest was aroused by lectures on the then little-understood subject of electricity. To the distress of his austere parents, he also enjoyed painting miniature portraits.
After graduating from Yale in 1810, Morse became a clerk for a Boston book publisher. But painting continued to be his main interest, and in 1811 his parents helped him to go to England in order to study that art. During the War of 1812, between Great Britain and the United States, Morse reacted to the English contempt for Americans by becoming passionately pro-American. Like the majority of Americans of his time, however, he accepted English artistic standards, including the “historical” style of painting—the romantic portrayal of legends and historical events with personalities gracing the foreground in grand poses and brilliant colours.
But when, on his return home in 1815, Morse found that Americans did not appreciate his historical canvases, he reluctantly took up portraiture again to earn a living. He began as an itinerant painter in New England, New York, and South Carolina; after 1825, on settling in New York City, he painted some of the finest portraits ever done by an American artist. He combined technical competence and a bold rendering of his subjects' character with a touch of the Romanticism he had imbibed in England.
Although often poor during those early years, Morse was sociable and at home with intellectuals, the wealthy, the religiously orthodox, and the politically conservative. In addition, he possessed the gift of friendship. Among his friends in his middle years were the French hero of the American Revolution, the marquis de Lafayette, whose attempts to promote liberal reform in Europe Morse ardently endorsed, and the novelist James Fenimore Cooper. Morse and Cooper shared several traits: both were ardent U.S. republicans, though both had aristocratic social tastes, and both suffered from the American preference for European art.
Morse also had the gift of leadership. As part of a campaign against the licentiousness of the theatre, he helped launch, in 1827, the New York Journal of Commerce, which refused theatre advertisements. He also was a founder of the National Academy of Design, organized to increase U.S. respect for painters, and was its first president from 1826 to 1845.
In 1832, while returning by ship from studying art in Europe, Morse conceived the idea of an electric telegraph as the result of hearing a conversation about the newly discovered electromagnet. Although the idea of an electric telegraph had been put forward before 1800, Morse believed that his was the first proposal. He probably made his first working model by 1835. Meanwhile, he was still devoting most of his time to painting, teaching art at the University of the City of New York (later New York University), and to politics. But, by 1837, he turned his full attention to the new invention. A colleague at the university showed him a detailed description of an alternative model proposed in 1831, and a friend offered to provide materials and labour to build models in his family's ironworks. These two became partners in Morse's telegraph rights. By 1838 he had developed the system of dots and dashes that became known throughout the world as the Morse Code. In 1838, while unsuccessfully attempting to interest Congress in building a telegraph line, he acquired a congressman as an additional partner. After failing to organize the construction of a Morse line in Europe, Morse was finally able to obtain, without his partners' cooperation, financial support from Congress for the first telegraph line in the United States, from Baltimore to Washington. In 1844 the line was completed, and he sent the first message, “What hath God wrought!”
Morse was immediately involved in legal claims by his partners and by rival inventors. He fought vigorously in this dispute, and a series of legal battles culminating in a U.S. Supreme Court decision established his patent rights in 1854. As telegraph lines lengthened on both sides of the Atlantic, his wealth and fame increased. By 1847 Morse had bought Locust Grove, an estate overlooking the Hudson River near Poughkeepsie, New York, where, early in the 1850s, he built an Italian villa-style mansion. He spent his summers there with his large family of children and grandchildren, returning each winter season to his brownstone home in New York City.
In his old age, Morse, a patriarch with a flowing beard, became a philanthropist. He gave generously to Vassar College, of which he was a founder and trustee; to his alma mater, Yale College; and to churches, theological seminaries, Bible societies, mission societies, and temperance societies, as well as to poor artists.
Even during Morse's own lifetime, the world was much changed by the telegraph. After his death in 1872, his fame as the inventor of the telegraph was obscured by the invention of the telephone, radio, and television, while his reputation as an artist has grown. At one time he did not wish to be remembered as a portrait painter, but his powerful and sensitive portraits, among them those of Lafayette, the American writer William Cullen Bryant, and other prominent men, have been exhibited throughout the United States. The number of Morse telegraphic operators has decreased sharply, but his memory is perpetuated by the Morse Telegraph Club (1942), an association of Canadian and American former telegraphers. His 1837 telegraph instrument is preserved by the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American History in Washington, D.C., while his estate, Locust Grove, is now designated a historic landmark.
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